1. Computing

Substr () PHP Function

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Definition: The Substr () PHP Function is used to return part of a string. It is written as substr (string, start, optional length);.

The string is whatever string you want to return a portion of.

The start is how many characters in to skip before starting. Setting this to 3 would skip the first three and start returning at the forth character. Setting this to a negative number will start counting backwards from the end of the string.

Length is an optional parameter. If you set this to a positive number, it will return that number of characters. If you set this to a negative number it will count that many numbers from the end of the string and return whatever is left in the middle.

Examples:
 <?php 
 // this will return bcdefghijk
 echo substr('abcdefghijk', 1);
 echo "<br>";
 
 // this will return defghijk
 echo substr('abcdefghijk', 3);
 echo "<br>";
 
 // this will return abc
 echo substr('abcdefghijk', 0, 3);
 echo "<br>";
 
 // this will return ijk
 echo substr('abcdefghijk', -3);
 echo "<br>";
 
 // this will return bcdefghij
 echo substr('abcdefghijk', 1, -1);
 echo "<br>";
 
 // this will return cdefgh
 echo substr('abcdefghijk', 2, -3);
 echo "<br>";
 ?> 
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